Body Composition and Metabolic Testing

Good Measure Meals™(GMM) now offers more than meals!  Understanding your current state of wellbeing is vital for making improvements to your health, and Good Measure Meals™ is bringing you two tools to help you gauge where you are and where you need to be!  Working with our team of registered dietitians and Wellness Professionals, GMM can provide both Body Composition Analyses and Metabolic tests for individuals and groups within companies/organizations.

The Tanita SC-331s Body Composition Analyzer

                This Tanita Scale is the latest addition to the Tanita Family and increases the amount of information that we are able to provide clients.  The scale uses Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to accurately read a client’s body composition within a minute’s time.  Each client will receive a printout including:

  • Weight
  • Impedance
  • Fat Percentage
  • Fat Mass
  • Fat Free Mass
  • Total Body Water Percentage
  • Total Body Water Mass
  • Muscle Mass
  • Physique Rating
  • Basal Metabolic rate
  • Metabolic Age
  • Bone Mass
  • Visceral fat Rating
  • Body Mass Index

 Our team will review all of the measurements and assist in setting healthy goals to attain optimal weight, energy intake and state of health.  This tool can be used for individuals up to 600lbs and is portable and can be reserved for use at health fairs, biometric screenings, or other health and wellness events.

Tanita Printout- Explanation of Measurements

Fat %:    This is the percentage of your body that is comprised of fat.  Because fat plays an important role in daily body functions, you need a certain amount of fat in order to live to your fullest.  Fat is responsible for cushioning joints, protecting organs, regulating body temperature and storing vitamins.  While you need a certain amount of fat, too much fat has adverse effects on the body and is associated with health risks such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, thyroid disorder, arthritis, sleep apnea, and many more.  A healthy/desirable Body Fat % range based on your particular age and gender is located in the middle of your Tanita Printout.  You can also take a look at the scale below to see where you fall:




Fat Mass:

                By knowing the percentage of body fat, we can simply multiple Body fat % by your weight to give us the exact poundage of fat in your body.  You can compare your fat mass to the desirable range also located on your Tanita Printout.   This can be used to help understand the minimum and maximum amount of fat you want to lose when planning your weight goals.



                This is your fat free mass, which is basically everything that is not fat: muscle, water, bone, connective tissue, etc.  By increasing this mass you lower your body fat percentage, so look to improve this number by gaining muscle mass or improving bone strength(through impact exercises).


Muscle Mass:

                The actual mass of your muscle throughout your entire body.  You can improve this number by increasing your strength training and resistance workouts. 



                This stands for Total Body Water and how we gain an understanding your hydration level.  When starting a diet or exercise routine, it is vital to stay hydrated to maximize the positive effects.  We convert TBW to TBW % by using the following formula:

TBW/Weight * 100 = Estimated Hydration Level (or TBW%)


TBW %: 

                Once we convert TBW to TBW% we have a way to gauge your hydration level. Water plays a vital role in a majority of the body’s functions and can be found in every cell, tissue, and organ.  We need to maintain a healthy TBW% to ensure that we are operating a maximum efficiency.  Your hydration levels fluctuate throughout the day, so use this measurement as a guide and not your absolute and note that eating large meals, drinking alcohol, menstruation, illness, exercising and bathing may cause variations in your hydration level.  Look at the table below to see healthy hydration levels.



Bone Mass:

                This is an indicator of the amount of bone (bone mineral level, calcium, or other minerals) in the body.  While exercise and calcium intake are related to increases in bone mass, it should be noted that bone structure is unlikely to make noticeable changes in a short period of time.  We use this measurement to advise the increase of impact training/calcium in the diet based on the averages of bone mass of healthy individuals.  The Elderly, women during or after menopause, or people receiving hormone therapy may obtain varying results and should only use this measurement as a reference, consulting a physician to learn more.  Take a look at the chart below to compare your bone mass to that of a health individual.



                This stands for Basal Metabolic Rate, which is the minimal amount of energy that your body needs to function at complete rest.  So if you were completely sedentary (sat on a couch all day) your body would consume this many calories just to stay alive.  Think about the energy your heart, lungs, and other organs need to function.  About 70% of your caloric intake is used for your basal metabolism.  Obviously you are not sedentary, so you can use BMR to figure out how many calories you should be consuming to gain, lose, or maintain weight through energy balance.  Daily activities and minimal exercise increase your BMR by about 15%, so adding an additional 15% to your BMR would give you the amount of calories you need to consume to maintain weight.  Obviously if you are exercising you will need to account for the calories burned during exercise.  For weight loss, creating a deficit of 500 calories per day will result in dropping 1 pound per week.  The max deficit you want to create is 7000/Week which is 2 pounds per week.  Over this, you are probably losing muscle mass or water weight and are subject to immediate weight gain.  Women don’t want to consume less than 1200/day and men need to stay above the 1500 calorie mark to keep your metabolism from shutting down.   Check out the example below for Mary, who has a BMR of 1500.


How Many Calories Mary Must Consume Daily


Weight Maintenance

Weight Loss (1 lb/wk)

Weight Loss (2 lb/wk)

No Exercise



725 (Not Healthy!!)

Burning 250kcal/day



975 (Not Healthy!!)

Burning 500kcal/day




Burning 750kcal/day






Metabolic Age:

                This reading is the age associated with your type of metabolism gathered from the relationship between BMR and body composition along with your impedance measurement.  You want your metabolic age to be lower than your biological age.  If it is higher, you can improve by increasing exercise that will build healthy muscle tissue.


Visceral Fat Rating:

                This measurement is a rating of the visceral fat in your body.  We all store fat in different places, but fat stored in the abdominal cavity (aka visceral fat) places you at greater risk for certain diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and the onset of type 2 diabetes.  This measurement is strictly a rating and is to be used to understand if you are at a health risk.  A rating of 1-12 indicates that you have a healthy level of visceral fat, but you should continue to monitor your rating to ensure that it stays in a healthy range. A rating of 13-59 indicated that you have an excess of visceral fat and should consider making changes in your lifestyle through diet and exercise.



                BMI stands for Body Mass Index and is a standard height to weight ratio used to classify health risks associated with weight gain.  BMI can be misleading though if you have a more athletic build (i.e. your muscle mass is above average), as it doesn’t take into consideration your body composition.  If you are an average build, you can follow the classifications below, but if your muscle mass is above or below average, your BMI will be skewed.



Ideal Body Weight:

                This is your ideal body weight given a BMI of 22 (the ideal BMI in the Healthy range).  Again, if you have an above average muscle mass, this number is unrealistic, so please disregard.   A more accurate goal weight can be found in the Target box under predicted weight.


Degree of Obesity:

                Calculated as a comparison of your weight and ideal weight.  Same caveat as above.


Desirable Range:

                Based on age and gender, this is the healthy range for body fat percentage for you.  Elite athletes might fall below this range during competition seasons, but for non-athletes below this range, there are serious health risks.  Fat percentages above this range also indicate health risks.  When determining your target weight, I either use the top end of this range (should you be labeled as obese) or the middle of the range to help guide you to your weight goals based on health status.


Target Box:

                The target box is the goal body fat % that I manual put in for you based on your age, gender and current health risk state.  My goal is always to choose a target that gets you in the healthy weight category, but may skew towards the higher end of the range to set realistic goals that keep people motivated.  If you are close to the healthy range your target BF % will be set to a mid-range percentage.



                Fat %/BMI :

(-): Underfat;; below the healthy body fat range and at risk for health problems

(0): Healthy; within the healthy body fat percentage range for your age/gender

(+): Overfat; above the healthy range. Increased risk for health problems

(++): Obese; high above the healthy body fat range.  Greatly increased risk of obesity-related health problems


                Visceral Fate Rating:

                                You want to be below the cutoff of 13.  Above 13, your health risk is increased. 


                Muscle Mass

                                (-): Below average muscle mass, you should increase resistance/strength training

                                (0): Average Muscle Mass

                                (+): Above average muscle mass. 



(-): Below average BMR, you need to increase your BMR by increasing muscle mass and decreasing body fat percentage.

                                (0): Average BMR

                                (+): Above average BMR.  You are burning calories more efficiently than the average                                      person 


Physique Rating:

                Based on the ratio of Muscle Mass to Fat Mass, this rating offers nine different physique assessments.  As you increase your fitness level, you should see changes in this rating.  While weight might not change, you are most likely dropping body fat and increasing muscle mass which ultimately changes your physique.  The chart below defines the nine ratings.


Physique Rating


Hidden obese

Small Frame Obese

This person seems to have a healthy body type based on physical appearance; however, they have a high body fat % with low muscle mass level


Medium Frame Obese

This person has a high body fat percentage, with a moderate muscle mass level


Large Frame Obese

This person has both a high body fat % and high muscle mass

Under Exercised

Low Muscle and Avg Body Fat %

This person has avg body fat % and a less than average muscle mass level


Avg Muscle and Avg body Fat %

This person has average levels of both body fat and muscle mass

Standard Muscular

High Muscle and Ave Body Fat %

This person has an average body fat % and higher than normal muscle mass level


Low Muscle and Low Fat

This person as both lower than normal body fat % and muscle mass level

Thin and Muscular

Thin and Muscular (Athlete)

This person has a lower than normal body fat % while have adequate muscle mass

Very Muscular

Very Muscular (Athlete)

This person has a lower than normal body fat % while have above average muscle mass



                Impedance reflects the body’s inherent resistance to an electrical current. Muscle acts as a conductor of the electrical current, adipose(fat) tissue acts as a resistor.